Publications & Abstracts

The experts at Knott Laboratory have been published in many engineering journals.


While most of these essays are quite detailed, these short abstracts express a summary of the overall papers that were published. Additionally, we've compiled our complete list of publications and abstracts for your convenience; some of which were featured in print or have not been made available online by the publishers.


Accident Reconstruction Journal

Reconstruction of a Motor Vehicle Accident involving a Police Shooting Using Photogrammetry and 3-D Computer Modeling


This paper presents methods used by Knott Laboratory to reconstruct a motor vehicle accident involved in a police shooting incident. The…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 2016

Newest Technologies Utilized in the Reconstruction of an Officer Involved Shooting Incident


This paper presents a case study which utilized many of the latest forensic technologies to reconstruct the events that occurred during an…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 2016

Forensic Engineering Evaluation and Testing of Horizontal Intrusion Protection Equipment for Stand-Up Forklifts


In 2004, a report issued by the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) evaluated a fatal standup forklift accident…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 2016

Advanced Forensic Engineering Analysis of a School Bus/Tractor Trailer Crash


This paper presents advanced techniques used to reconstruct a motor vehicle accident involving a fully loaded semi and school bus with…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December 2015

Forensic Engineering Investigation of Above-ground Pool Submersion Accidents


Approximately 35 children under the age of 5 years old access above-ground pools via a ladder and drown each year in the United States.…

The Lawyer’s Logbook (Vol. 5, No.3)
August-September, 2015

An Insight into Knott Laboratory with Dr. Ziernicki


Learn more from the following interview with the owner, President and CEO of Knott Laboratory, Richard M. Ziernicki, Ph.D., P.E.

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers - June 2015

Forensic Engineering Investigation of Workplace Incidents Involving Machinery


On many occasions, a forensic engineer faces numerous questions when investigating workplace incidents involving machinery, such as: Why…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December, 2014

The Forensic Engineer in State and Federal Court


This paper outlines the legal system in the United States, the different types of courts, the differences between criminal and civil law,…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
2014, December

Forensic Engineering Usage of Surveillance Video in Accident Reconstruction


With the increased use of surveillance cameras, more and more video footage depicting accidents is available these days, for accident…

ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition
2014, November

Stand-Up Forklift Egress Times as a Function of Operator Compartment Guarding


A significant hazard related to the use of stand-up lift trucks, or stand-up forklifts, is the hazard of a lower limb crush injury or foot…

P.E. Magazine, Published by the National Society of Professional Engineers
October 2014

Who Can Be a Forensic Expert?


Many professionals, including engineers, are interested to know what it takes to be an expert witness and who can be one. Experts in the…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 4, No. 3
Aug. – Sep. 2014

Falling Cargo: Is the Driver or Shipper Liable?


This article focuses on driver and shipper involvement in transportation. Cargo Securement is a serious issue. Improper securement of cargo…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 4., No. 1
Apr. - May 2014

The Nuts and Bolts of Cargo Loading and Securement Cases


Seven percent of serious trucking accidents nationwide are reported to have been caused, at least in part, by cargo shifting or cargo…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 3, No. 4
Oct. – Nov. 2013

Trucking Accidents and Regulations


Semi tractor-trailers are different than passenger vehicles: They are up to 75 feet long and weigh up to 80,000 lbs. when fully loaded,…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 2013

Forensic Engineering Investigation of Incidents Involving Corded Window Coverings


It has been recognized for many years that young children have been involved in incidents, including strangulation, with the cords…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 2, No. 5
2013

Newest Trends in Accident Reconstruction


As someone with strong experience in court, I would like to provide some insight into the best practices that I have learned and observed…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December, 2012

Forensic Engineering Analysis of Trucking Accidents and Regulations


This paper discusses heavy trucking accidents, their causations, applicable state and federal regulations and the newest available…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 1, No. 5
2012

Fatigued Drivers and Consequences


National statistics show that fatigued drivers cause over 20 percent of trucking accidents. Such impaired drivers were the number one cause…

The Lawyer’s LogBook, Vol. 1, No. 1
Apr. - May 2011

Danger! Falling Cargo, The Importance of Proper and Safe Securement of Your Load


Transportation of cargo is a keystone of any market economy. Materials and products are often transported several times and travel hundreds…

ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
November, 2011

Analysis Of The Hazards Of Wood Chipper Accidents


It is well known in the tree care industry that operators can become caught or snagged by material entering a wood chipper. The…

ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
November, 2010

Stand-Up Forklift Acceleration


This paper will examine the accelerations present during the operation of stand-up forklifts. Forklifts, or powered industrial trucks, are…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2009-01-2915
October, 2009

Wind Effects on Dynamic Stability of Tractor Trailers in Winter Conditions


There is a limited amount of data in literature discussing dynamic instability of tractor trailers due to wind speed and wind gusts on…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December, 2008

Forensic Engineering Investigations of Product Liability Cases


Engineers are regularly retained to perform investigations to determine whether or not a product is defective and liable for injuries…

ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
November, 2008

Hazard Analysis And Risk Assessment For The Operators of Stand-up Forklifts


Past studies have indicated that the greatest risk that a forklift operator faces is the hazard of an overturning forklift crushing the…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June, 2008

Forensic Engineering Assessment of Safety for Stand Up Forklifts


Forklifts operated from a stand up position rather than a seated position offer a significant advantage to increase warehouse capacity.…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December, 2007

Forensic Engineering Evaluation of Physical Evidence in Accident Reconstruction


Physical evidence deposited by vehicles as a result of an accident may not always be fully documented by the investigating law enforcement…

XVI EVU Annual Meeting
November 2007

Limitations of the Possibility of Applying the Monte Carlo Simulation in Vehicle Accident Reconstruction


The Monte Carlo simulation has become a popular method for dealing with uncertainty within analyses.The popularity of the Monte Carlo…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2007-01-4232
2007

A Method for Determining and Presenting Driver Visibility in Commercial Vehicles


Driver visibility from commercial vehicles is often an issue in post-accident litigation. While the visibility through the windows of most…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2007-01-0741
2007

Considerations for Applying and Interpreting Monte Carlo Simulation Analyses in Accident Reconstruction


In reconstructing any accident, the reconstructionist must properly account for uncertainty in their analysis. One popular method of…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
December, 2006

Forensic Engineering Use of Computer Animation and Graphics


During an accident reconstruction investigation, many complicated issues arise that must be presented to a judge or jury. Although the…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2005-01-1200
2005

Crush and Conservation of Energy Analysis: Toward a Consistent Methodology


This paper clarifies the relationship between the absorbed crush energy and the dissipated crush energy and explores the use of each in…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2004-01-1181
2004

An Examination of the CRASH3 Effective Mass Concept


This paper examines the validity of the effective mass concept used in the CRASH 3 damage analysis equations. In this study, the effective…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2002-01-1991
2002

A New Polycarbonate and Glass Laminate and its Affects on the Relationship Between Residual Tensile Stresses and Impact Resistance of Windshields


Current windshield manufacturing processes produce residual tensile stresses near the edges of windshields. This residual tensile stress…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 2001

Forensic Engineering Techniques to Reconstruct Shooting Incidents


This paper discusses and evaluates the techniques and technology available to reconstruct shooting incidents. Reconstruction typically…

International Journal of Crashworthiness, REF: 2173
September 2000

Using Digital Photogrammetry to Determine Crash Severity


This paper presents a new method of determining the severity of vehicular accidents using digital photogrammetry. A state-of-the-art…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June, 2000

Forensic Engineering Comparison of Two & Three Dimensional Photogrammetric Accident Analysis


One of the challenges for an accident reconstructionist is to create accurate scene diagrams from photographs. There are several software…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), Paper 1999-01-0439
1999

Using Digital Photogrammetry to Determine Vehicle Crush and Equivalent Barrier Speed (EBS)


This paper presents a method of determining a vehicle crush and equivalent barrier speed using digital photogrammetry. A state-of-the-art…

Accident Investigation Quarterly, Issue 16
1997

Automotive Airbags


In contrast to historical opposition to tougher federal safety standards, automakers are currently promoting safety features as a market…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June, 1996

Head Injury Prevention and Future Design Trends in the Automobile Industry


The most common type of injury seen in motor vehicle accidents is head trauma. The head is the most frequently injured body region for…

Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation (ISATA)
June 1996

Head Injury Risk Assessment and Prevention in Automobile Accidents


This paper discusses testing methods, Federal Regulations and injury protection technology currently being developed regarding head injury…

Accident Investigation Quarterly, Issue 9
1996

Field Investigation of Automotive Seat Belts


Field investigation of seatbelt condition after an accident may provide answers to two fundamental questions; was the seatbelt in use…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June, 1995

Seat Belt Investigation In Automobile Accidents


Field investigation of seat belt condition after an accident is often intended to answer two fundamental questions: (1) was the seat belt…

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Paper 942377
November, 1994

Head Injury In Automobile Accidents


This paper is the summary of the current state of the art in the multidisciplinary science of biomechanics as it relates to head injury. A…

Accident Reconstruction Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1
January/February 1994

Seat Belt Development and Current Design Features


Historically, the original purpose of seat belts was preventing occupant ejection. This need was recognized by early automobile occupants…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June, 1992

The Forensic Engineer’s Relationship to Manufacturers in Product


Accidents are the third largest cause of death in America, taking 140,000 lives per year. Construction accidents kill about 1000 workers…

Forensic Engineering, The International Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4
1991

Working With the Manufacturer in Product Cases


This article is an overview of the basic terminology, procedures, and investigative techniques related to forensic involvement in product…

Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
June 1991

An Overview of Heavy Trucks/Buses Braking Performance


The writer discusses the performance of heavy duty vehicles during emergency braking. The paper reviews statistical data related to the…

Forensic Engineering, The International Journal, Vol. II, No. 3
1990

The Effect Of Variables On Vehicular Accident Reconstruction


There are a number of publications discussing the mathematical theory, sources of data, and accuracy of the EDCRASH computer program for…